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Satta, A., Lezzeri, M., Brundu, G., Floris, I., Palmieri, N., Roberto, ·, … Theodorou, P. (2024). How seasonality, semi-natural habitat cover and compositional landscape heterogeneity affect pollen collection and development of Apis mellifera colonies in Mediterranean agro-sylvo-pastoral systems. Landscape Ecology 2024 39:2, 39(2), 1–15. doi:10.1007/S10980-024-01826-Y   

Proesmans, W., Felten, E., Laurent, E., Albrecht, M., Cyrille, N., Labonté, A., Maurer, C., Paxton, R., Schweiger, O., Szentgyörgyi, H., & Vanbergen, A. J. (2024). Urbanisation and agricultural intensification modulate plant–pollinator network structure and robustness. Functional Ecology, 00, 1–14.   

Dooremalen, C. van, Ulgezen, Z. N., Dall’Olio, R., Godeau, U., Duan, X., Sousa, J. P., Schäfer, M. O., Beaurepaire, A., Gennip, P. van, Schoonman, M., Flener, C., Matthijs, S., Boúúaert, D. C., Verbeke, W., Freshley, D., Valkenburg, D.-J., Bosch, T. van den, Schaafsma, F., Peters, J., Streicher T., Tehel, A.,  Paxton, R. J.,… Graaf, D. C. de. (2024). Bridging the Gap between Field Experiments and Machine Learning: The EC H2020 B-GOOD Project as a Case Study towards Automated Predictive Health Monitoring of Honey Bee Colonies. Insects 2024, Vol. 15, Page 76, 15(1), 76.   

Klaus, F., Ayasse, M., Classen, A., Dauber, J., Diekötter, T., Everaars, J., Fornoff, F., Greil, H., Hendriksma, H. P., Jütte, T., Klein, A. M., Krahner, A., Leonhardt, S. D., Lüken, D. J., Paxton, R. J., Schmid-Egger, C., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Thiele, J., Tscharntke, T., … Pistorius, J. (2024). Improving wild bee monitoring, sampling methods, and conservation. Basic and Applied Ecology.   

Doublet, V., Oddie, M. A. Y., Mondet, F., Forsgren, E., Dahle, B., Furuseth-Hansen, E., Williams, G. R., Smet, L. De, Natsopoulou, M. E., Murray, T. E., Semberg, E., Yańez, O., Graaf, D. C. de, Conte, Y. Le, Neumann, P., Rimstad, E., Paxton, R. J., & Miranda, J. R. de. (2024). Shift in virus composition in honeybees (Apis mellifera) following worldwide invasion by the parasitic mite and virus vector Varroa destructor. Royal Society Open Science, 11(1).   


Osterman, J., Benton, F., Hellström, S., Luderer-Pflimpfl, M., Pöpel-Eisenbrandt, A.-K., Wild, B. S.,Theodorou P., … Paxton, R. J. (2023). Mason bees and honey bees synergistically enhance fruit set in sweet cherry orchards. Ecology and Evolution, 13(7), e10289. doi:   

Fleites-Ayil, F. A., Medina-Medina, L. A., Quezada Euán, J. J. G., Stolle, E., Theodorou, P., Tragust, S., & Paxton, R. J. (2023). Trouble in the tropics: Pathogen spillover is a threat for native stingless bees. Biological Conservation, 284, 110150. doi:   

Chantaphanwattana, T., Shafiey, H., Phokasem, P., Disayathanoowat, T., & Paxton, R. J. (2023). The presence of identical deformed wing virus sequence variants in co-occurring Apis species in Northern Thailand may represent a potential epidemiological threat to native honey bees of Southeast Asia. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 107957. doi:10.1016/J.JIP.2023.107957   

Liang, H., He, Y.-D., Theodorou, P., & Yang, C.-F. (2023). The effects of urbanization on pollinators and pollination: A meta-analysis. Ecology Letters, doi:   

Kahnt, B., Theodorou, P., Grimm-Seyfarth, A., & Onstein, R. E. (2023). When lizards shift to a more plant-based lifestyle: The macroevolution of mutualistic lizard-plant-interactions (Squamata: Sauria/Lacertilia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 186, 107839. doi:   

Al Naggar, Y., Shafiey, H., & Paxton, R. J. (2023). Transcriptomic Responses Underlying the High Virulence of Black Queen Cell Virus and Sacbrood Virus following a Change in Their Mode of Transmission in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera). Viruses, 15(6), 1284. doi:10.3390/v15061284   

Jones, B. M., Rubin, B. E. R., Dudchenko, O., Kingwell, C. J., Traniello, I. M., Wang, Z. Y., Paxton. R.J., … Kocher, S. D. (2023). Convergent and complementary selection shaped gains and losses of eusociality in sweat bees. Nature Ecology & Evolution 2023, 1–13. doi:10.1038/s41559-023-02001-3   

Hellström, S., Strobl, V., Straub, L., Osterman, W. H. A., Paxton, R. J., & Osterman, J. (2023). Beyond generalists: The Brassicaceae pollen specialist Osmia brevicornis as a prospective model organism when exploring pesticide risk to bees. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators, 100239. doi:10.1016/J.INDIC.2023.100239   

Herrmann, J., Buchholz, S., & Theodorou, P. (2023). The degree of urbanisation reduces wild bee and butterfly diversity and alters the patterns of flower-visitation in urban dry grasslands. Scientific Reports 2023 13:1, 13(1), 1–15. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-29275-8   

Kandel, M., Paxton, R. J., & Naggar, Y. Al. (2023). Nationwide Screening for Bee Viruses in Apis mellifera Colonies in Egypt. Insects 2023, Vol. 14, Page 172, 14(2), 172. doi:10.3390/INSECTS14020172   

Al Naggar, Y.; Sayes, C.M.; Collom, C.; Ayorinde, T.; Qi, S.; El-Seedi,  H.R.; Paxton, R.J.; Wang, K. (2023). Chronic Exposure to Polystyrene  Microplastic Fragments Has No Effect on Honey Bee Survival, but Reduces  Feeding Rate and Body Weight. Toxics, 11, 100.   


Streicher, T., Tehel, A., Tragust, S., & Paxton, R. J. (2022). Experimental viral spillover can harm Bombus terrestris workers under field conditions. Ecological Entomology. doi:10.1111/een.13203   

Sydenham, M.A.K., Venter, Z.S., Moe, S.R., Eldegard, K., Kuhlmann, M.,  Reitan, T., Rasmussen, C., Paxton, R., Dupont, Y.L., Skrindo, A.B.,  Hegland, S.J., Nielsen, A., Olesen, J.M., Nowell, M. and Rusch, G.M.  (2022), Neutral processes related to regional bee commonness and  dispersal distances are important predictors of plant–pollinator  networks along gradients of climate and landscape conditions. Ecography  e06379.   

Linguadoca, A., Jürison, M., Hellström, S., Straw, E. A., Šima, P., Karise, R., Paxton R.… Zámky, N. (2022). Intra-specific variation in sensitivity of Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis to three pesticides. Scientific Reports 2022 12:1, 12(1), 1–12. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-22239-4   

Brinker, P., Chen, F., Chehida, Y. B., Beukeboom, L. W., Fontaine, M. C., & Salles, J. F. (2022). Microbiome composition is shaped by geography and population structure in the parasitic wasp Asobara japonica, but not in the presence of the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Molecular Ecology, 00, 115.   

Mazi, S., Paxton, R. J., & Osterman, J. (2022). A subset of wild bee species boosts the pollination of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan: Fabaceae), an important crop plant of Cameroon. Journal of Apicultural Research, 1–9. doi:10.1080/00218839.2022.2118097   

Theodorou, P., Kühn, O., Baltz, L. M., Wild, C., Rasti, S. L., … Kurze, C. (2022). Bumble bee colony health and performance vary widely across the urban ecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology. doi:10.1111/1365-2656.13797   

Garlin, J., Theodorou, P., Kathe, E., Javier, J., Quezada-Euán, G., Paxton, R. J., & Soro, A. (2022). Anthropogenic effects on the body size of two neotropical orchid bees. BMC Ecology and Evolution 2022 22:1, 22(1), 1–13. doi:10.1186/S12862-022-02048-Z   

Kratochwil, A., Paxton, R. J., Schwabe, A., Aguiar, A. M. F., & Husemann, M. (2022). Morphological and genetic data suggest a complex pattern of inter-island colonisation and differentiation for mining bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Andrena) on the Macaronesian Islands. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 22(1), 189–204. doi:10.1007/s13127-021-00513-z   

Pantaleoni, R. A., Pusceddu, M., Tauber, C. A., Theodorou, P., & Loru, L. (2022). How much does a drop of sugar solution benefit a hatchling of Chrysoperla pallida (Neuroptera Chrysopidae)? Biological Control, 172, 104963. doi:10.1016/J.BIOCONTROL.2022.104963   

Kratochwil, A., Paxton, R. J., Schwabe, A., Aguiar, A. M. F., & Husemann, M. (2022). Morphological and genetic data suggest a complex pattern of inter-island colonisation and differentiation for mining bees (Hymenoptera: Anthophila: Andrena) on the Macaronesian Islands. Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 22(1), 189–204. doi:10.1007/S13127-021-00513-Z/FIGURES/7   

Paxton, R. J., Schäfer, M. O., Nazzi, F., Zanni, V., Annoscia, D., Marroni, F., … Shafiey, H. (2022). Epidemiology of a major honey bee pathogen, deformed wing virus: potential worldwide replacement of genotype A by genotype B. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 18, 157–171. doi:10.1016/J.IJPPAW.2022.04.013   

Theodorou, P. (2022). The effects of urbanisation on ecological interactions. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 52, 100922. doi:10.1016/J.COIS.2022.100922   

Boff, S., Conrad, T., Raizer, J., Wehrhahn, M., Melis Bayer, |, Friedel, A., Theodorou P.,… Lupi, D. (2022). Low toxicity crop fungicide (fenbuconazole) impacts reproductive male quality signals leading to a reduction of mating success in a wild solitary bee. Journal of Applied Ecology, 00, 1–12. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.14169   

Santangelo, J. S., Ness, R. W., Cohan, B., Fitzpatrick, C. R., Innes, S. G., Koch, S.,....Theodorou P.,.... Soro A.… Johnson, M. T. J. (2022). Global urban environmental change drives adaptation in white clover. Science, 375(6586), 1275–1281. doi:10.1126/SCIENCE.ABK0989   

Vázquez, M., Muńoz, D., Medina, R., Paxton, R. J., Freitas De Oliveira, F., José, &, & Quezada-Euán, J. G. (2022). Sympatric cleptobiotic stingless bees have species-specific cuticular profiles that resemble their hosts. Scientific Reports 2022 12:1, 12(1), 1–10. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-06683-w   

Tehel, A., Streicher, T., Tragust, S., & Paxton, R. J. (2022). Experimental cross species transmission of a major viral pathogen in bees is predominantly from honeybees to bumblebees. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 289(1969). doi:10.1098/RSPB.2021.2255   

Piot, N., Schweiger, O., Meeus, I......Robert Paxton et al. (2022) Honey bees and climate explain viral prevalence in wild bee communities on a continental scale. Sci Rep 12, 1904.   


Kleemann, J., Koo, H., Hensen, I., Mendieta-Leiva, G., Kahnt, B., Kurze, C., … Fürst, C. (2022). Priorities of action and research for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystem services in continental Ecuador. Biological Conservation, 265, 109404. doi:10.1016/J.BIOCON.2021.109404   

Osterman J., Landaverde-González P., Garrat M. P. D., Gee M., Mandelik Y., Longowska A., Mińarro M., Cole L. J., Eeraerts M., Bevk D., Avrech O., Koltowski Z., Trujillo-Elisea F. I., Paxton R. J., Boreux V., Seymour C. L., Howlett B. G. On-farm experiences shape farmer knowledge, perceptions of pollinators and management practices. Global Ecology and Conservation, 32, e01949.

Hornick, T., Richter, A., Harpole, W. S., Bastl, M., Bohlmann, S., Bonn, A., Theodorou P,… Dunker, S. (2021). An integrative environmental pollen diversity assessment and its importance for the Sustainable Development Goals. PLANTS, PEOPLE, PLANET, n/a(n/a). doi:   

Pusceddu, M., Cini, A., Alberti, S., Salaris, E., Theodorou, P., Floris, I., & Satta, A. (2021). Honey bees increase social distancing when facing the ectoparasite Varroa destructor. Science Advances, 7(44). doi:10.1126/SCIADV.ABJ1398   

Garratt, M. P. D., de Groot, G. A., Albrecht, M., Bosch, J., Breeze, T. D., Fountain, M. T., Paxton R. J. … Zhusupbaeva, A. (2021). Opportunities to reduce pollination deficits and address production shortfalls in an important insect-pollinated crop. Ecological Applications, n/a(n/a), e02445. doi:   

Kidner, J., Theodorou, P., Engler, J. O., Taubert, M., & Husemann, M. (2021). A brief history and popularity of methods and tools used to estimate micro‐evolutionary forces. Ecology and Evolution. doi:10.1002/ece3.8076   

Osterman J., Aizen M. A., Biesmeijer J. C., Bosch J., Howlett B. G., Inouye D. W., Jung Ch., Martins D. J., Medel R., Pauw A., Seymour C. L., Paxton R. J. (2021). Global trends in the management of a diversity of pollinator species. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 322, 107653.   

Osterman, W. H. A., Cornejo, F. M., Osterman, J. (2021). An Andean hotspot in Northern Peru. Ursus, 32 (e12), 1-10.   

Séguret, A., Stolle, E., Fleites-Ayil, F. A., Quezada-Euán, J. J. G., Hartfelder, K., Meusemann, K., … Paxton, R. J. (2021). Transcriptomic signatures of ageing vary in solitary and social forms of an orchid bee. Genome Biology and Evolution. doi:10.1093/gbe/evab075   

de Jesús May-Itzá, W., de Araujo-Freitas, C., Paxton, R. J., Moo-Valle, H., Medina-Medina, L. A., & Quezada-Euán, J. J. G. (2021). Stingless bees in urban areas: low body size and high frequency of diploid males at mating congregations of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in Mérida, Yucatán, México. Apidologie, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s13592-021-00862-w   

Osterman, J., Theodorou, P., Radzevičiūtė, R., Schnitker, P., & Paxton, R. J. (2021). Apple pollination is ensured by wild bees when honey bees are drawn away from orchards by a mass co-flowering crop, oilseed rape. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 315, 107383. doi:10.1016/J.AGEE.2021.107383   

Dosch, C., Manigk, A., Streicher, T., Tehel, A., Paxton, R. J., & Tragust, S. (2021). The Gut Microbiota Can Provide Viral Tolerance in the Honey Bee. Microorganisms, 9(4), 871. doi:10.3390/microorganisms9040871   

Proesmans, W., Albrecht, M., Gajda, A., Neumann, P., Paxton, R. J., Pioz, M., … Vanbergen, A. J. (2021). Pathways for Novel Epidemiology: Plant–Pollinator–Pathogen Networks and Global Change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. doi:10.1016/J.TREE.2021.03.006   

Steitz, I., Paxton, R. J., Schulz, S., & Ayasse, M. (2021). Chemical Variation among Castes, Female Life Stages and Populations of the Facultative Eusocial Sweat Bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 1–14. doi:10.1007/s10886-021-01267-w   

Gippet, J. M. W., Colin, T., Grangier, J., Winkler, F., Haond, M., Dumet, A., Tragust S.… Kaufmann, B. (2021). Land-cover and climate factors contribute to the prevalence of the ectoparasitic fungus Laboulbenia formicarum in its invasive ant host Lasius neglectus. Fungal Ecology, 51, 101045. doi:10.1016/J.FUNECO.2021.101045   

Korb, J., Meusemann, K., Aumer, D., Bernadou, A., Elsner, D., Feldmeyer, B., … consortium, Paxton R.J. the S.-L. (2021). Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the mechanisms underpinning ageing and fecundity in social insects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 376(1823), 20190728. doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0728   

Kramer, B. H., Nehring, V., Buttstedt, A., Heinze, J., Korb, J., Libbrecht, R., Paxton R.J. … Bernadou, A. (2021). Oxidative stress and senescence in social insects: a significant but inconsistent link? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 376(1823), 20190732. doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0732   

Topping, C. J., Brown, M., Chetcuti, J., de Miranda, J. R., Nazzi, F., Neumann, P., Paxton R.J...Stout, J. C. (2021). Holistic environmental risk assessment for bees. Science, 371(6532), 897. doi:10.1126/science.abg9622   

Abd El- Wahab, T. E., Shalaby, S. E. M., Al-Kahtani, S. N., Al Naggar, Y., Jamal, Z. A., & Masry, S. H. D. (2021). Mode of application of acaricides against the ectoparasitic mite (Varroa destructor) infesting honeybee colonies, determines their efficiencies and residues in honey and beeswax. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 33(1), 101236. doi:10.1016/J.JKSUS.2020.101236   

Abd El-Wahed, A., Yosri, N., Sakr, H. H., Du, M., Algethami, A. F. M., Zhao, C., Al Naggar, Y., El-Seedi, H. R. (2021). Wasp Venom Biochemical Components and Their Potential in Biological Applications and Nanotechnological Interventions. Toxins, 13(3), 206. doi:10.3390/toxins13030206   

Al Naggar, Y., Brinkmann, M., Sayes, C. M., AL-Kahtani, S. N., Dar, S. A., El-Seedi, H. R., … Giesy, J. P. (2021). Are Honey Bees at Risk from Microplastics? Toxics, 9(5), 109. doi:10.3390/toxics9050109   

Al Naggar, Y., Giesy, J. P., Abdel-Daim, M. M., Javed Ansari, M., Al-Kahtani, S. N., & Yahya, G. (2021). Fighting against the second wave of COVID-19: Can honeybee products help protect against the pandemic? Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28(3), 1519–1527. doi:10.1016/J.SJBS.2020.12.031   

Dar, S. A., Sofi, M. A., El-Sharnouby, M., Hassan, M., Rashid, R., Mir, S. H., Al Naggar, Y., … Sayed, S. (2021). Nesting behaviour and foraging characteristics of Andrena cineraria (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. doi:10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.04.063   

Shaldam, M. A., Yahya, G., Mohamed, N. H., Abdel-Daim, M. M., & Al Naggar, Y., (2021). In silico screening of potent bioactive compounds from honeybee products against COVID-19 target enzymes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1–8. doi:10.1007/s11356-021-14195-9   


Stein, K., Coulibaly, D., Balima, L. H., Goetze, D., Linsenmair, K. E., Porembski, S., … Theodorou, P. (2020). Plant-Pollinator Networks in Savannas of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Diversity, 13(1), 1. doi:10.3390/d13010001   

Theodorou, P., Herbst, S.-C., Kahnt, B., Landaverde-González, P., Baltz, L. M., Osterman, J., & Paxton, R. J. (2020). Urban fragmentation leads to lower floral diversity, with knock-on impacts on bee biodiversity. Scientific Reports 2020 10:1, 10(1), 1–11. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-78736-x   

Abd El- Wahab, T. E., Shalaby, S. E. M., Al-Kahtani, S. N., Al Naggar, Y., Jamal, Z. A., & Masry, S. H. D. (2021). Mode of application of acaricides against the ectoparasitic mite (Varroa destructor) infesting honeybee colonies, determines their efficiencies and residues in honey and beeswax. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 33(1), 101236. doi:10.1016/J.JKSUS.2020.101236   

Radzevičiūtė, R.   , Theodorou, P., Schlegel, M., & Paxton, R. J. (2021). A two-part modelling approach reveals a positive effect of pollinator biodiversity in boosting the pollination of apple flowers. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 306, 107197. doi:10.1016/J.AGEE.2020.107197   

Al Naggar, Y.; Paxton, R.J. (2020). The novel insecticides flupyradifurone and sulfoxaflor do not act synergistically with viral pathogens in reducing honey bee (Apis mellifera) survival but sulfoxaflor modulates host immunocompetence. Microbial Biotechnology, 1751-7915.13673. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.13673   

Theodorou, P., Baltz, L. M., Paxton, R. J., & Soro, A. (2020). Urbanisation is associated with shifts in bumblebee body size, with cascading effects on pollination. Evolutionary Applications, eva.13087. doi:10.1111/eva.13087   

Wood, T. J., Michez, D., Paxton, R. J., Drossart, M., Neumann, P., Gérard, M., … Vereecken, N. J. (2020). Managed honey bees as a radar for wild bee decline? Apidologie, 1–17. doi:10.1007/s13592-020-00788-9   

Escobedo-Kenefic, N., Landaverde-González, P., Theodorou, P., Cardona, E., Dardón, M. J., Martínez, O., & Domínguez, C. A. (2020). Disentangling the effects of local resources, landscape heterogeneity and climatic seasonality on bee diversity and plant-pollinator networks in tropical highlands. Oecologia, 1–12. doi:10.1007/s00442-020-04715-8   

Tehel, A., Streicher, T., Tragust, S., Paxton, R.J. 2020. Experimental infection of bumblebees with  honeybee-associated viruses: no direct fitness costs but potential  future threats to novel wild bee hosts. Royal Society Open Science 7: 200480.   

Al Naggar, Y.; Paxton, R.J. 2020. Mode of Transmission Determines the Virulence of Black Queen Cell Virus in Adult Honey Bees, Posing a Future Threat to Bees and Apiculture. Viruses 12, 535.

Reider, S. J., Moosmang, S., Tragust, J., Trgovec-Greif, L., Tragust, S., Perschy, L., Przysiecki, N., Sturm, S., Tilg, H., Stuppner, H., Rattei, T., Moschen, A. R. 2020. Prebiotic  Effects of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum on the Composition and  Function of the Human Microbiota—Results from the PAGODA Trial. Nutrients 12(5), 1257;   

Tragust, S., Brinker, P., Rossel, N., Otti, O. 2020. Balancing life history investment decision in founding ant queens. Frontiers in Ecology & Evolution 8:76. doi:10.3389/fevo.2020.00076   

Cole, L. J., Kleijn, D., Dicks, L. V., Stout, J. C., Potts, S. G., Albrecht, M., Paxton, R.J. … Scheper, J. 2020. A critical analysis of the potential for EU Common Agricultural Policy measures to support wild pollinators on farmland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 1365-2664.13572. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.13572   

Medina, R. G., Paxton, R. J., Hernández-Sotomayor, S. M. T., Pech-Jiménez, C., Medina-Medina, L. A., & Quezada-Euán, J. J. G. 2020. Heat stress during development affects immunocompetence in workers, queens and drones of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Thermal Biology, 102541. doi:10.1016/J.JTHERBIO.2020.102541   

Tragust, S., Herrmann, C., Häfner, J., Braasch, R., Tilgen, C., Hoock, M., … Feldhaar, H. 2020. Formicine ants swallow their highly acidic poison for gut microbial selection and control. BioRxiv, 2020.02.13.947432. doi:10.1101/2020.02.13.947432   

Paxton, R. J. 2020. A microbiome silver bullet for honey bees. Science, 367(6477), 504 LP – 506. doi:10.1126/science.aba6135   

Theodorou P, Radzevičiūte R   , Lentendu G, Kahnt B, Husemann M,  Bleidorn C, Settele J, Schweiger O, Grosse I, Wubet T, Murray TE, Paxton R. 2020.Urban areas as hotspots for bees and pollination but not a panacea for all insects Nature Communications, 11(1), 1-13.doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14496-6   

Ziege M, Theodorou P, Jüngling H, Merker S, Plath M, Streit B Lerp H. 2020. Population genetics of the European rabbit along a rural-to-urban gradient. Scientific Reports. 10, 2448.doi:10.1038/s41598-020-57962-3   

Mura A, Pusceddu M, Theodorou P, Angioni A, Floris I, Paxton R, Satta A. 2020. Propolis consumption reduces Nosema ceranae infection of European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Insects. 11(2), 124. doi:10.3390/insects11020124   

El-Sofany, A., Naggar, Y. Al, Naiem, E., Giesy, J. P., & Seif, A. 2020. Authentication of the botanical and geographic origin of Egyptian honey using pollen analysis methods. Journal of Apicultural Research, 1–10. doi:10.1080/00218839.2020.1720950   

McDonald, R. I., Mansur, A. V., Ascensăo, F., Colbert, M., Crossman, K., Elmqvist, T., Kahnt B… Ziter, C. 2020. Research gaps in knowledge of the impact of urban growth on biodiversity. Nature Sustainability, 3(1), 16–24. doi:10.1038/s41893-019-0436-6   

Boff, S., Henrique, J. A., Friedel, A., & Raizer, J. (2020). Disentangling the path of pollinator attraction in temporarily colored flowers. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 1–7. doi:10.1007/s42690-020-00323-4   

Boff, S., & Friedel, A. (2020). Dynamics of nest occupation and homing of solitary bees in painted trap nests. Ecological Entomology, een.12965. doi:10.1111/een.12965   


Aizen, M. A., Aguiar, S., Biesmeijer, J. C., Garibaldi, L. A., Inouye, D. W., Jung, C., Paxton R… Seymour, C. L. 2019. Global agricultural productivity is threatened by increasing pollinator dependence without a parallel increase in crop diversification. Global Change Biology, 25(10), 3516–3527. doi:10.1111/gcb.14736   

López‐Uribe, M. M., Jha, S., & Soro, A. 2019. A trait‐based approach to predict population genetic structure in bees. Molecular Ecology, 28(8), 1919–1929.   

Pusceddu M, Piluzza G, Theodorou P, Buffa F, Ruiu L, Bullitta S, Floris I, Satta A. 2019 Resin foraging dynamics in Varroa destructor ‐infested hives: a case of medication of kin? Insect Sci. 26, 297–310. doi:10.1111/1744-7917.12   

Kahnt B, Hattingh WN, Theodorou P, Wieseke N, Kuhlmann M, Glennon KL, Niet T, Paxton R, Cron G V. 2019 Should I stay or should I go? Pollinator shifts rather than cospeciation dominate the evolutionary history of South African Rediviva bees and their Diascia host plants. Mol. Ecol. 28, 4118–4133. doi:10.1111/mec.15154   

Tehel, A., Vu, Q., Bigot, D., Gogol-Döring, A., Koch, P., Jenkins, C.,  Doublet, V., Theodorou, P., Paxton, R., 2019. The two prevalent  genotypes of an emerging infectious disease, Deformed wing virus,  cause equally low pupal mortality and equally high wing deformities in  host honey bees. Viruses 11, 114. DOI: 10.3390/v11020114

Osterman J., Wintermantel D., Locke B., Jonsson O., Semberg E., Onorati P., Forsgren E., Rosenkranz P., Rahbek-Pedersen T., Bommarco R., Smith H. G., Rundlöf M. & de Miranda J. R. 2019 Clothianidin seed-treatment has no detectable negative impact on honeybee colonies and their pathogens. Nature Communications 10, 692. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08523-4   

Friedel, A., Lattorff, H. M. G., Quezada-Euán, J. J. G., Boff, S. 2019. Shared reproduction and sex ratio adjustment to clutch size in a socially polymorphic orchid bee. Ethology,   

Al Naggar, Y., & Baer, B. 2019. Consequences of a short time exposure to a sublethal dose of Flupyradifurone (Sivanto) pesticide early in life on survival and immunity in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Scientific Reports, 9(1), 19753. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56224-1   


Kahnt B., Theodorou P., Soro A., Hollens-Kuhr H., Kuhlmann M., Pauw A., Paxton R.J. 2018 Small and genetically highly structured populations in a long-legged bee, Rediviva longimanus, as inferred by pooled RAD-seq. BMC Evol. Biol. 18, 196. doi:10.1186/s12862-018-1313-z   

Rivkin, L.R., Santangelo, J.S., Alberti, M., Aronson, M.F.J., de Keyzer, C.W., Diamond, S.E., Fortin, M., Frazee, L.J., Gorton, A.J., Hendry, A.P., Liu, Y., Losos, J.B., MacIvor, J.S., Martin, R.A., McDonnell, M.J., Miles, L.S., Munshi‐South, J., Ness, R.W., Newman, A.E.M., Stothart, M.R., Theodorou, P., Thompson, K.A., Verrelli, B.C., Whitehead, A., Winchell, K.M. & Johnson, M.T.J. 2018 A roadmap for urban evolutionary ecology. Evol. Appl. , eva.12734. doi:10.1111/eva.12734   

Pusceddu M., Floris I., Mura A., Theodorou P., Cirotto G., Piluzza G., Bullitta S., Angioni A., Satta A. 2018 The effects of raw propolis on Varroa-infested honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers. Parasitol. Res. 117, 3527–3535. doi:10.1007/s00436-018-6050-0   

Sann C., Theodorou P., Heong K.L., Villareal S., Settele J., Vidal S., Westphal C. 2018 Hopper parasitoids do not significantly benefit from non-crop habitats in rice production landscapes. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 254, 224–232. doi:10.1016/J.AGEE.2017.11.035   

McMahon, D.P., Wilfert, L., Paxton, R.J. & Brown, M.J.F. 2018. Chapter Eight - Emerging Viruses in Bees: From Molecules to Ecology. In: Malmstrom, C.M. (Ed.), Advances in Virus Research. Academic Press, pp. 251-291. DOI: 10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.02.008

Steitz, I., Kingwell, C., Paxton, R.J. & Ayasse, M. 2018. Evolution of caste-specific chemical profiles in halictid bees. Journal of Chemical Ecology 44, 827–837. DOI: 10.1007/s10886-018-0991-8

Landaverde-González, P., Baltz, L.M., Escobedo-Kenefic, N., Mérida, J., Paxton, R.J. & Husemann, M. 2018. Recent low levels of differentiation in the native Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) along two Neotropical mountain-ranges in Guatemala. Biodiversity & Conservation 27, 3513-3531. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-018-1612-0

Boff, S., Friedel, A., Miertsch, J., Quezada-Euan, J.J.G., Paxton, R.J. & Lattorff, H.M.G. 2018. A scientific note of housekeeping genes for the primitively eusocial bee Euglossa viridissima Friese (Apidae: Euglossini). Sociobiology 65, 766-769. DOI: 10.13102/sociobiology.v65i4.3428

Brinker, P., Weig, A., Rambold, G., Feldhaar, H., Tragust, S., 2018: Microbial community composition of nest-carton and adjoining soil of the ant Lasius fuliginosus and the role of host secretions in structuring microbial communities. Fungal Ecology. DOI: 10.1016/j.funeco.2018.08.007

Medina, R.G., Paxton, R.J., De Luna, E., Fleites-Ayil, F.A., Medina Medina, L.A. & Quezada-Euán, J.J.G., 2018. Developmental stability, age at onset of foraging and longevity of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) under heat stress (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of Thermal Biology 74, 214-225. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2018.04.003

Theodorou, P., Radzevičiūtė, R., Kahnt, B., Soro, A., Grosse, I. & Paxton, R.J. 2018. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism scan suggests adaptation to urbanization in an important pollinator, the red-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lapidarius L.). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285, 20172806. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.2806

Conrad, T., Paxton, R.J., Assum, G., Ayasse, M., 2018. Divergence in male sexual odor signal and genetics across populations of the red mason bee, Osmia bicornis, in Europe. PLoS ONE 13, e0193153. DOI: 0.1371/journal.pone.019315

Sinpoo, C., Paxton, R.J., Disayathanoowat, T., Krongdang, S. & Chantawannakul, P. 2018. Impact of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis on individual worker bees of the two host species (Apis cerana and Apis mellifera) and regulation of host immune response. Journal of Insect Physiology 105, 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2017.12.010

Pull, C.D., Ugelvig, L.V., Wiesenhofer, F.,  Grasse, A.V., Tragust, S., Schmitt, T.,  Brown, M.J.F. & Cremer, S. (2018). Destructive disinfection of infected brood prevents systemic disease spread in ant colonies. eLife 7: e32073. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.32073.


Landaverde-González, P., Enríquez, E., Ariza, M.A., Murray, T., Paxton, R.J. & Husemann, M. 2017. Fragmentation in the clouds? The population genetics of the native bee Partamona bilineata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in the cloud forests of Guatemala. Conservation Genetics 18, 631-643. DOI: 10.1007/s10592-017-0950-x

Kirkitadze, G., Husemann, M., Paxton, R.J., Radzevičiūtė, R. & Japoshvili, G. 2017. Records of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) new to both Georgia and Transcaucasia revealed by DNA barcoding. Zoology in the Middle East 63, 154-160. DOI: 10.1080/09397140.2017.1305517

Radzevičiūtė, R., Theodorou, P., Husemann, M., Japoshvili, G., Kirkitadze, G., Zhusupbaeva, A. & Paxton, R.J. 2017. Replication of honey bee-associated RNA viruses across multiple bee species in apple orchards of Georgia, Germany and Kyrgyzstan. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 146, 14-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2017.04.002

Natsopoulou, M.E., McMahon, D.P., Doublet, V., Frey, E., Rosenkranz, P. & Paxton, R.J. 2017. The virulent, emerging genotype B of Deformed wing virus is closely linked to overwinter honeybee worker loss. Scientific Reports 7, 5242. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-05596-3

Friedel, A., Paxton, R.J. & Soro, A. 2017. Spatial patterns of relatedness within nesting aggregations of the primitively eusocial sweat bee Lasioglossum malachurum. Insectes Sociaux in press, 1-11. DOI: 10.1007/s00040-017-0559-6

Kahnt, B., Montgomery, G.A., Murray, E., Kuhlmann, M., Pauw, A., Michez, D., Paxton, R.J. & Danforth, B.N. 2017. Playing with extremes: origins and evolution of exaggerated female forelegs in South African Rediviva bees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 115, 95-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.07.025

Landaverde-González, P., Moo-Valle, H., Murray, T.E., Paxton, R.J., Quezada-Euán, J.J.G. & Husemann, M. 2017. Sympatric lineage divergence in cryptic Neotropical sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Lasioglossum). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 17, 251-265. DOI: 10.1007/s13127-016-0307-1

Soro, A., Quezada-Euan, J.J.G., Theodorou, P., Moritz, R.F.A. & Paxton, R.J. 2017. The population genetics of two orchid bees suggests high dispersal, low diploid male production and only an effect of island isolation in lowering genetic diversity. Conservation Genetics 18, 607-619. DOI: 10.1007/s10592-016-0912-8

Theodorou, P., Albig, K., Radzevičiūtė, R., Settele, J., Schweiger, O., Murray, T.E. & Paxton, R.J. 2017. The structure of flower visitor networks in relation to pollination across an agricultural to urban gradient. Functional Ecology 31, 838-847. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12803

Landaverde-González, P., Quezada-Euán, J.J.G., Theodorou, P., Murray, T.E., Husemann, M., Ayala, R., Moo-Valle, H., Vandame, R. & Paxton, R.J. 2017. Sweat bees on hot chillies: provision of pollination services by native bees in traditional slash-and-burn agriculture in the Yucatán Peninsula of tropical Mexico. Journal of Applied Ecology 54, 1814-1824. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12860

Doublet, V., Poeschl, Y., Gogol-Döring, A., Alaux, C., Annoscia, D., Aurori, C., Barribeau, S.M., Bedoya-Reina, O.C., Brown, M.J.F., Bull, J.C., Flenniken, M.L., Galbraith, D.A., Genersch, E., Gisder, S., Grosse, I., Holt, H.L., Hultmark, D., Lattorff, H.M.G., Le Conte, Y., Manfredini, F., McMahon, D.P., Moritz, R.F.A., Nazzi, F., Nińo, E.L., Nowick, K., van Rij, R.P., Paxton, R.J. & Grozinger, C.M. 2017. Unity in defence: honeybee workers exhibit conserved molecular responses to diverse pathogens. BMC Genomics 18, 207. DOI: 10.1186/s12864-017-3597-6

Škubník, K., Nováček, J., Füzik, T., Přidal, A., Paxton, R.J. & Plevka, P. 2017. Structure of deformed wing virus, a major honey bee pathogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, 3210-3215. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1615695114

McKendrick, L., Provan, J., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Brown, M.J.F., Murray, T.E., Stolle, E. & Paxton, R.J. 2017. Microsatellite analysis supports the existence of three cryptic species within the bumble bee Bombus lucorum sensu lato. Conservation Genetics 18, 573-584. DOI: 10.1007/s10592-017-0956-4


Wolf, S., Nicholls, E., Reynolds, A.M., Wells, P., Lim, K.S., Paxton, R.J. & Osborne, J.L. 2016. Optimal search patterns in honeybee orientation flights are robust against emerging infectious diseases. Scientific Reports, 6, 32612. DOI: 10.1038/srep32612

Doublet, V., Paxton, R.J., McDonnell, C.M., Dubois, E., Nidelet, S., Moritz, R.F.A., Alaux, C. & Le Conte, Y. 2016. Brain transcriptomes of honey bees (Apis mellifera) experimentally infected by two pathogens: Black queen cell virus and Nosema ceranae. Genomics Data 10, 79-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.gdata.2016.09.010

Natsopoulou, M.E., Doublet, V. & Paxton, R.J. 2016. European isolates of the Microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae have similar virulence in laboratory tests on European worker honey bees. Apidologie 47: 57-65. doi: 10.1007/s13592-015-0375-9

Natsopoulou ,M.E., McMahon, D.P. & Paxton, R.J. 2016. Parasites modulate within-colony activity and accelerate the temporal polyethism schedule of a social insect, the honey bee. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 70: 1019-1031. doi: 10.1007/s00265-015-2019-5

Theodorou, P., Radzevičiūtė, R., Settele, J., Schweiger, O., Murray, T.E. & Paxton, R.J. 2016. Pollination services enhanced with urbanization despite increasing pollinator parasitism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 283: 20160561. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0561

Engel, P., Kwong, W.K., McFrederick, Q., Anderson, K.E., Barribeau, S.M., Chandler, J.A., Cornman, R.S., Dainat, J., de Miranda, J.R., Doublet, V., Emery, O., Evans, J.D., Farinelli, L., Flenniken, M.L., Granberg, F., Grasis, J.A., Gauthier, L., Hayer, J., Koch, H., Kocher, S., Martinson, V.G., Moran, N., Munoz-Torres, M., Newton, I., Paxton, R.J., Powell, E., Sadd, B.M., Schmid-Hempel, P., Schmid-Hempel, R., Song, S.J., Schwarz, R.S., vanEngelsdorp, D. & Dainat, B. (2016) The bee microbiome: impact on bee health and model for evolution and ecology of host-microbe interactions. mBio 7, e02164-02115. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02164-15

Séguret, A., Bernadou, A. & Paxton, R.J. 2016. Facultative social insects can provide insights into the reversal of the longevity/fecundity trade-off across the eusocial insects. Current Opinion in Insect Science 16: 95-103. doi: 10.1016/j.cois.2016.06.001

McMahon, D.P., Natsopoulou, M.E., Doublet, V., Fürst, M.A., Weging, S., Brown, M.J.F., Gogol-Döring, A. & Paxton, R.J. 2016. Elevated virulence of an emerging virus genotype as a driver of honeybee loss. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 283: 20160811. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0811

Tehel, A., Brown, M.J.F. & Paxton, R.J. 2016. Impact of managed honey bee viruses on wild bees. Current Opinion in Virology 19: 16-22. doi: 10.1016/j.coviro.2016.06.006

Brown, M.J.F., Dicks, L.V., Paxton, R.J., Baldock, K.C.R., Barron, A.B., Chauzat, M.-P., Freitas, B.M., Goulson, D., Jepsen, S., Kremen, C., Li, J., Neumann, P., Pattemore, D.E., Potts, S.G., Schweiger, O., Seymour, C.L. & Stout, J.C. (2016) A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination. PeerJ, 4: e2249. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2249


Forfert, N., Natsopoulou, M.E., Frey, E., Rosenkranz, P., Paxton R.J. & Moritz, R.F.A. 2015. Parasites and pathogens of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and their influence on inter-colonial transmission. PLoS ONE 10, e0140337. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140337

Kahnt, B., Gerth, M., Paxton, R.J., Bleidorn, C. & Husemann, M. 2015. The complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic and highly specialised South African bee species: Rediviva intermixta (Hymenoptera: Melittidae), with a comparison to other bee mitogenomes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Soceity 116: 940-953. doi: 10.1111/bij.12627

Doublet, V., Natsopoulou, M.E., Zschieche, L. & Paxton, R.J. (2015). Within-host competition among the honey bees pathogens Nosema ceranae and Deformed wing virus is asymmetric and to the disadvantage of the virus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 124: 31-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.10.007

McMahon DP, Fürst MA, Caspar J, Panagiotis T, Brown MJF & Paxton RJ (2015) A sting in the spit: widespread cross-infection of multiple RNA viruses across wild and managed bees. Journal of Animal Ecology 84, 615-624. Doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12345

Doublet V, Labarussias M, de Miranda JR, Moritz RFA, Paxton RJ (2015) Bees under stress: sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality across the life cycle. Environmental Microbiology 17, 969-983. Doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12426

Boff S, Forfert N, Paxton RJ, Montejo E, Quezada-Euan JJG (2015) A behavioral guard caste in a primitively eusocial orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima, helps defend the nest against resin theft by conspecifics. Insectes Sociaux 62, 247-249. Doi: 10.1007/s00040-015-0397-3

Natsopoulou ME, McMahon DP, Doublet V, Bryden J, Paxton RJ (2015) Interspecific competition in honeybee intracellular gut parasites is asymmetric and favours the spread of an emerging infectious disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 282, 20141896. Doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1896


Kocher SD, Paxton RJ (2014) Comparative methods offer powerful insights into social evolution in bees. Apidologie 45: 289–305. doi:10.1007/s13592-014-0268-3.   

Fürst MA, McMahon DP, Osborne JL, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2014) Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature 506, 364-366. doi: 10.1038/nature12977

May-Itzá, J., Medina-Medina, L.A., Medina, S., Paxton, R.J. & Quezada-Euán, J.J.G. (2014). Seasonal nest characteristics of a facultatively social orchid bee, Euglossa viridissima (Hymenoptera: Euglossini), in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Insectes Sociaux 61: 183-190. doi:10.1007/s00040-014-0342-x   

Boff, S.V., Soro, A., Paxton, R.J. & Alves-dos-Santos, I. (2014). Island isolation reduces genetic diversity and connectivity but does not significantly elevate diploid male production in a Neotropical orchid bee. Conservation Genetics 15: 1123-1135. doi: 10.1007/s10592-014-0605-0

Kahnt, B., Soro, A., Kuhlmann, M., Gerth, M. & Paxton, R.J. (2014). Insights into the biodiversity of the Succulent Karoo hotspot of South Africa: the population genetics of a rare and endemic halictid bee, Patellapis doleritica. Conservation Genetics 15: 1491-1502. doi: 10.1007/s10592-014-0633-9


Suraporn S, Natsopoulou ME, Doublet V, McMahon DP, Paxton RJ (2013) Nosema ceranae is not detected in honey bees (Apis spp.) of northeast Thailand. Journal of Apicultural Research 52, 259-261.

Moritz RFA, Kraus FB, Huth-Schwarz A, Wolf S, Carrillo CAC, Paxton RJ, Vandame R (2013) Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico. Apidologie 44, 113-120.

Fries I, Chauzat M-P, Chen Y-P, Doublet V, Genersch E, Gisder S, Higes M, McMahon DP, Martín-Hernández R, Natsopoulou M, Paxton RJ, Tanner G, Webster TC, Williams GR (2013) Standard methods for Nosema research. Journal of Apicultural Research 52. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.

Williams GR, Alaux C, Costa C, Csáki T, Doublet V, Eisenhardt D, Fries I, Kuhn R, McMahon DP, Medrzycki P, Murray TE, Natsopoulou ME, Neumann P, Oliver R, Paxton RJ, Pernal SF, Shutler D, Tanner G, Van der Steen JJM, Brodschneider R (2013) Standard methods for maintaining adult Apis mellifera in cages under in vitro laboratory conditions. Journal of Apicultural Research 52. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.

Vanbergen AJ and the Insect Pollinators Initiative (Baude M, Biesmeijer JC, Britton NF, Brown MJF, Brown M, Bryden J, Budge GE, Bull JC, Carvell C, Challinor AJ, Connolly CN, Evans DJ, Feil EJ, Garratt MP, Greco MK, Heard MS, Jansen VAA, Keeling MJ, Kunin WE, Marris GC, Memmott J, Murray JT, Nicolson SW, Osborne JL, Paxton RJ, Pirk CWW, Polce C, Potts SG, Priest NK, Raine NE, Roberts S, Ryabov EV, Shafir S, Shirley MDF, Simpson SJ, Stevenson PC, Stone GN, Termansen M, Wright GA) (2013) Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11, 251-259.

Dicks LV, Abrahams A, Atkinson J, Biesmeijer J, Bourn N, Brown C, Brown M, Carvell C, Connolly C, Cresswell J, Croft P, Darvill B, de Zylva P, Effingham P, Fountain M, Goggin A, Harding D, Harding T, Hartfield C, Heard MS, Heathcote R, Heaver D, Holland J, Howe M, Hughes B, Huxley T, Kunin WE, Little J, Mason C, Memmott J, Osborne J, Pankhurst T, Paxton RJ, Pocock M, Potts SG, Power E, Raine N, Ranelagh E, Roberts S, Saunders R, Smith K, Smith RM, Sutton P, Tilley L, Tinsley A, Tonhasca A, Vanbergen AJ, Webster S, Wilson A, Sutherland WJ (2013) Identifying key knowledge needs for evidence-based conservation of wild insect pollinators: a collaborative cross-sectoral exercise. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6, 339-353.


Yańez O, Jaffé R, Jarosch A, Fries I, Moritz RFA, Paxton RJ, de Miranda JR (2012) Deformed wing virus and drone mating flights in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): implications for sexual transmission of a major honey bee virus. Apidologie 43, 17-30.

Vásquez A, Forsgren E, Fries I, Paxton RJ, Flaberg E, Szekely L, Olofsson TC (2012) Symbionts as major modulators of insect health: Lactic Acid Bacteria and honeybees. PLoS ONE 7, e33188.

Quezada-Euán JJG, May-Itzá WdJ, Rincón M, De La Rúa P, Paxton RJ (2012) Genetic and phenotypic differentiation in endemic Scaptotrigona hellwegeri (Apidae: Meliponini): implications for the conservation of stingless bee populations in contrasting environments. Insect Conservation and Diversity 5, 433–443.

Pérez-Balam J, Quezada-Euán JJG, Alfaro-Bates R, Medina S, McKendrick L, Soro A, Paxton RJ (2012) The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana) pollination in southern Mexico. Journal of Pollination Ecology 8, 42-47.

Pech-May FG, Medina-Medina L, J. May-Itzá W, Paxton RJ, Quezada-Euán JJG (2012) Colony pollen reserves affect body size, sperm production and sexual development in males of the stingless bee Melipona beecheii. Insectes Sociaux 59, 417-424.

Murray TE, Fitzpatrick Ú, Byrne A, Fealy R, Brown MJF, Paxton RJ (2012) Local-scale factors structure wild bee communities in protected areas. Journal of Applied Ecology 49, 998–1008.

Field J, Paxton RJ, Soro A, Craze P, Bridge C (2012) Body size, demography and foraging in a socially plastic sweat bee: a common garden experiment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66, 743-756.

Davis ES, Reid N, Paxton RJ (2012) Quantifying forage specialisation in polyphagic insects: the polylectic and rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Insect Conservation and Diversity 5, 289-297.

Carolan JC, Murray TE, Fitzpatrick Ú, Crossley J, Schmidt H, Cederberg B, McNally L, Paxton RJ, Williams PH, Brown MJF (2012) Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex. PLoS ONE 7, e29251.


Soro A, Ayasse M, Zobel MU, Paxton RJ (2011) Kin discriminators in the eusocial sweat bee Lasioglossum malachurum: the reliability of cuticular and Dufour’s gland odours. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65, 641-653.

Quezada-Euán JJG, López-Velasco A, Pérez-Balam J, Moo-Valle H, Velazquez-Madrazo A, Paxton RJ (2011) Body size differs in workers produced across time and is associated with variation in the quantity and composition of larval food in Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera, Meliponini). Insectes Sociaux 58, 31-38.


Souza RO, Del Lama MA, Cervini M, Mortari N, Eltz T, Zimmermann Y, Bach C, Brosi BJ, Suni S, Quezada-Euán JJG, Paxton RJ (2010) Conservation genetics of Neotropical pollinators revisited: microsatellite analysis demonstrates that diploid males are rare in orchid bees. Evolution 64, 3318-3326.

Soro A, Field J, Bridge C, Cardinal SC, Paxton RJ (2010) Genetic differentiation across the social transition in a facultatively social sweat bee, Halictus rubicundus. Molecular Ecology 19, 3351-3363.

Paxton RJ (2010) Does infection by Nosema ceranae cause "Colony Collapse Disorder" in honey bees (Apis mellifera)? Journal of Apicultural Research 49, 80-84.

Moritz RFA, de Miranda J, Fries I, Le Conte Y, Neumann P, Paxton RJ (2010) Research strategies to improve honeybee health in Europe. Apidologie 41, 227–242.

Jaffé R, Dietemann V, Allsopp MH, Costa C, Crewe RM, Dall'Olio R, De la Rúa P, El-Niweiri MAA, Fries I, Kenzic N, Meusel MS, Paxton RJ, Shaibi T, Stolle E, Moritz RFA (2010) Estimating the density of honeybee colonies across their natural range to fill the gap in pollinator decline censuses. Conservation Biology 24, 583-593.

Field J, Paxton RJ, Soro A, Bridge C (2010) Cryptic plasticity underlies a major evolutionary transition. Current Biology 23, 2028–2031.

Davis ES, Murray TE, Fitzpatrick Ú, Brown MJF, Paxton RJ (2010) Landscape effects on extremely fragmented populations of a rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis. Molecular Ecology 19, 4922–4935.

Conrad T, Paxton RJ, Barth FG, Francke W, Ayasse M (2010) Female choice in the red mason bee, Osmia rufa (L.) (Megachilidae). Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 4065-4073.


Zimmermann Y, Roubik DW, Quezada-Euan JJG, Paxton RJ, Eltz T (2009) Single mating in orchid bees (Euglossa, Apinae): implications for mate choice and social evolution. Insectes Sociaux 56, 241-249.

Soro A, Paxton RJ (2009) Characterization of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) and their variability in related species. Molecular Ecology Resources 9, 150-152.

Soro A, Ayasse M, Zobel MU, Paxton RJ (2009) Complex sociogenetic organization and the origin of unrelated workers in a eusocial sweat bee, Lasioglossum malachurum. Insectes Sociaux 56, 55-63.

Paxton RJ, Zobel MU, Steiner J, Zillikens A (2009) Microsatellite loci for Euglossa annectans (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and their variability in other orchid bees. Molecular Ecology Resources 9, 1221-1223.

Murray TE, Davis ES, Paxton RJ (2009) Microsatellite loci for a rare solitary bee, Colletes floralis (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and their variability in other colletid bees. Molecular Ecology Notes 9, 1460-1466.

Brown MJF, Paxton RJ (2009) The conservation of bees: a global perspective. Apidologie 40, 410-416.

Murray TE, Fitzpatrick Ú, Brown MJF, Paxton RJ (2008) Cryptic species diversity in a widespread bumble bee complex revealed using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs. Conservation Genetics 9, 653-666.

Zobel MU, Paxton RJ (2007) Is big the best? Queen size, usurpation and nest closure of a primitively eusocial sweat bee (Lasioglossum malachurum). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61, 435-447.

Souza RO, Cervini M, Del Lama MA, Paxton RJ (2007) Microsatellite loci for euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 7, 1352-1356.

Paxton RJ, Klee J, Korpela S, Fries I (2007) Nosema ceranae has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998 and may be more virulent than Nosema apis. Apidologie 38, 558-565.

O'Mahony EM, Tay WT, Paxton RJ (2007) Multiple rRNA variants in a single spore of the microsporidian Nosema bombi. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 54, 103-109.

Klee J, Besana AM, Genersch E, Gisder S, Nanetti A, Tam DQ, Chinh TX, Puerta F, Ruz JM, Kryger P, Message D, Hatjina F, Korpela S, Fries I, Paxton RJ (2007) Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 96, 1-10.

Fitzpatrick Ú, Murray TE, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2007) Building on IUCN regional red lists to produce lists of species of conservation priority: a model with Irish bees. Conservation Biology 21, 1324-1332.

Fitzpatrick Ú, Murray TE, Paxton RJ, Breen J, Cotton D, Santorum V, Brown MJF (2007) Rarity and decline in bumblebees - a test of causes and correlates in the Irish fauna. Biological Conservation 136, 185-194.

Klee J, Tay WT, Paxton RJ (2006) Specific and sensitive detection of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in bumble bees (Bombus spp.; Hymenoptera: Apidae) by PCR of partial rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 91, 98-104.

Fitzpatrick Ú, Murray TE, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2006) The State of Ireland’s Bees, pp. 1-20. National Parks and Wildlife Service (Republic of Ireland) and Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland), Dublin, Ireland.

Fitzpatrick Ú, Murray TE, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2006) Revisions to the checklist of Irish bees. Irish Naturalists' Journal 28, 240-242.

Fitzpatrick Ú, Murray TE, Byrne A, Paxton RJ, Brown MJF (2006) Regional red list of Irish bees, pp. 1-38. National Parks and Wildlife Service (Republic of Ireland) and Environment and Heritage Service (Northern Ireland), Dublin, Ireland.

Tay WT, O'Mahony EM, Paxton RJ (2005) Complete rRNA gene sequences reveal that the microsporidium Nosema bombi infects diverse bumblebee (Bombus spp.) hosts and contains multiple polymorphic sites. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52, 505-513.

Richards MH, French D, Paxton RJ (2005) It's good to be queen: classically eusocial colony structure and low worker fitness in an obligately social sweat bee. Molecular Ecology 14, 4123-4133.

Paxton RJ (2005) Male mating behaviour and mating systems of bees: an overview. Apidologie 36, 145-156.


Paxton RJ, Murray TE, Bradley U, Brown MJF (2004) A new pollinator initiative on the island of Ireland. Bee World 85, 83-84.

Fellendorf M, Mohra C, Paxton RJ (2004) Devastating effects of river flooding for the ground nesting bee, Andrena vaga (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), and its associated fauna. Journal of Insect Conservation 8, 311-322.

Paxton RJ, Bego LR, Shah MM, Mateus S (2003) Low mating frequency of queens in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica and worker maternity of males. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 53, 174-181.

Paxton RJ, Arévalo E, Field J (2003) Microsatellite loci for the eusocial Lasioglossum malachurum and other sweat bees (Hymenoptera, Halictidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 82-84.

Paxton RJ, Ayasse M, Field J, Soro A (2002) Complex sociogenetic organization and reproductive skew in a primitively eusocial sweat bee, Lasioglossum malachurum, as revealed by microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 11, 2405-2416.

Palmer KA, Oldroyd BP, Quezada-Euán JJG, Paxton RJ, May-Itza WJ (2002) Paternity frequency and maternity of males in some stingless bee species. Molecular Ecology 11, 2107-2113.

Freitas BM, Paxton RJ, Holanda-Neto JPd (2002) Identifying pollinators among an array of flower visitors, and the case of inadequate cashew pollination in NE Brazil. In: Pollinating Bees. The Conservation Link between Agriculture and Nature (eds. Kevan PG, Imperatriz Fonseca VL), pp. 229-244. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Ayasse M, Paxton RJ (2002) Brood protection in social insects. In: The Chemoecology of Insect Eggs and Egg Deposition (eds. Hilker M, Meiners T), pp. 117-148. Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Paxton RJ, Thorén PA, Estoup A, Tengö J (2001) Queen-worker conflict over male production and the sex ratio in a facultatively polyandrous bumble bee, Bombus hypnorum: the consequences of nest usurpation. Molecular Ecology 10, 2489-2498.

Paxton RJ, Tengö J (2001) Doubly duped males: the sweet and sour of the orchid's bouquet. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 167-169.

Fries I, Ruijter Ad, Paxton RJ, da Silva A, Slemenda SB, Pieniazek NJ (2001) Molecular characterization of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and a note on its sites of infection in Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Apicultural Research 40, 91-96.

Ayasse M, Paxton RJ, Tengö J (2001) Mating behavior and chemical communication in the order Hymenoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 46, 31-78.

Segelbacher G, Paxton RJ, Steinbrück G, Trontelj P, Storch I (2000) Characterization of microsatellites in capercaillie Tetrao urogallus (Aves). Molecular Ecology 9, 1934-1935.

Paxton RJ, Thorén PA, Gyllenstrand N, Tengö J (2000) Microsatellite DNA analysis reveals low diploid male production in a communal bee with inbreeding. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 68, 483-502.

Paxton RJ (2000) Genetic structure of colonies and a male aggregation in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica, as revealed by microsatellite analysis. Insectes Sociaux 47, 63-69.

Mohra C, Fellendorf M, Segelbacher G, Paxton RJ (2000) Dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Andrena vaga and other andrenid bees from non-enriched and CT-enriched libraries. Molecular Ecology 9, 2189-2191.


Paxton RJ, Weißschuh N, Quezada-Euán JJG (1999) Characterization of dinucleotide microsatellite loci for stingless bees. Molecular Ecology 8, 690-692.

Paxton RJ, Weißschuh N, Engels W, Hartfelder K, Quezada-Euan JJG (1999) Not only single mating in stingless bees. Naturwissenschaften 86, 143-146.

Paxton RJ, Pohl H (1999) The tawny mining bee, Andrena fulva (Müller) (Hymenoptera, Andreninae), at a South Wales field site and its associated organisms: Hymenoptera, Diptera, Nematoda and Strepsiptera. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 12, 57-67.

Paxton RJ, Kukuk PF, Tengö J (1999) Effects of familiarity and nestmate number on social interactions in two communal bees, Andrena scotica and Panurgus calcaratus (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Insectes Sociaux 46, 109-118.

Paxton RJ, Giovanetti M, Andrietti F, Scamoni E, Scanni B (1999) Mating in a communal bee, Andrena agilissima (Hymenoptera Andrenidae). Ecology Ethology & Evolution 11, 371-382.

Fries I, Paxton RJ, Tengö J, Slemenda SB, da Silva AJ, Pieniazek NJ (1999) Morphological and molecular characterization of Antonospora scoticae n. gen., n. sp. (Protozoa, Microsporidia) a parasite of the communal bee, Andrena scotica Perkins, 1916 (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). European Journal of Protistology 35, 183-193.

Hatjina F, Free JB, Paxton RJ (1998) Hive-entrance pollen transfer devices to increase the cross-pollination potential of honey bees: I. Pilot study examining six materials. Journal of Apicultural Research 37, 231-237.

Freitas BM, Paxton RJ (1998) A comparison of two pollinators: the introduced honey bee Apis mellifera and an indigenous bee Centric tarsata on cashew Anacardium occidentale in its native range of NE Brazil. Journal of Applied Ecology 35, 109-121.

Paxton R, J., Fries I, Pieniazek N, J., Tengö J (1997) High incidence of infection of an undescribed microsporidium (Microspora) in the communal bee Andrena scotica (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). Apidologie 28, 129-141.

Paxton RJ, Thorén PA, Tengö J, Estoup A, Pamilo P (1996) Mating structure and nestmate relatedness in a communal bee, Andrena jacobi (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), using microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 5, 511-519.

Paxton RJ, Tengö J, Hedström L (1996) Fly parasites and other associates of a communal bee, Andrena scotica (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), on Öland, SE Sweden. Entomologisk Tidskrift 117, 165-178.

Paxton RJ, Tengö J (1996) Intranidal mating, emergence, and sex ratio in a communal bee Andrena jacobi Perkins 1921 (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 9, 421-440.

Freitas BM, Paxton RJ (1996) The role of wind and insects in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) pollination in NE Brazil. Journal of Agricultural Science 126, 319-326.

Thorén PA, Paxton RJ, Estoup A (1995) Unusually high frequency of (CT)n and (GT)n microsatellite loci in a yellowjacket wasp, Vespula rufa (L.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Insect Molecular Biology 4, 141-148.


Paxton RJ, Sakamoto CH, Rugiga FCN (1994) Modification of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) stinging behaviour by within-colony environment and age. Journal of Apicultural Research 33, 75-82.

Free JB, Paxton RJ, Waghchoure ES (1992) Increasing the amount of foreign pollen carried by honey bee foragers. Journal of Apicultural Research 30, 132-136.

Banda HJ, Paxton RJ (1991) Pollination of greenhouse tomatoes by bees. Acta Horticulturae 288, 194-198.

Paxton RJ (1991) Profile of a solitary bee: Andrena fulva. Bee World 72, 11-18.

Paxton RJ, Echazarreta CM, Garcia M (1991) Africanized honey bees in Yucatan, Mexico: a detailed survey. American Bee Journal 131, 646-648.

Paxton RJ, Harvey PH (1983) On the evolution of Müllerian mimicry: hypotheses and tests. Oikos 41, 146-147.

Harvey PH, Bull JJ, Pemberton M, Paxton RJ (1982) The evolution of aposematic coloration in distasteful prey: a family model. American Naturalist 119, 710-719.

Harvey PH, Paxton RJ (1981) The evolution of aposematic coloration. Oikos 37, 391-393 & 395-396.